I tried throwing a fire extinguisher twice.
The first time it ruined flashed the screen like I was hit (and there was the hit sound), and my pants and shoes were ruined. (Granted, the pants and shoes were both "Damaged" before the throw. (Pants were Natural leather pants and shoes were Natural leather moccassins, if that makes a difference).
I didn't have a clean pair of pants or new shoes to try after that, but I threw the fire extinguisher again. And again I experienced the hit flash and sound
I have not had a chance to try with the bag of lime yet, but when searching bugs before posting, I noticed bug #0021143 mentioned that his pants were ruined when throwing a bag of lime. (Since that bug was primarily dealing with swapping inventory, I decided to open a new one).